The occurrence of 51 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the Detroit River Watershed (DRW) was investigated. Also, the efficiency of local water treatment plants (WTPs) in removing these pollutants was evaluated. Samples were collected from various locations in the DRW, including the discharge of a sewage treatment plant (STP), downstream of the STP on the Detroit River, the intakes of the WTPs, and treated drinking water. Of the 51 target substances analyzed, 12 were not detected in any of the samples, while 14 were detected consistently in all samples from the STP effluent. The concentration of target chemicals was two to four orders of magnitude higher in the STP effluents than at the intakes of the WTPs. In total, 10 substances were detected in at least 10% of the drinking water samples. Two compounds, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctyl solfonate (PFOS), were found in 90+% of the drinking water samples.
- pharmaceuticals and personal care products
- Detroit River Watershed
- water treatment plants
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