The objective of the study was to identify appropriate analytical scenarios to assess the release of emerging toxins in water resources and manage the risk for drinking water. A comprehensive toolbox was developed for the monitoring of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in ten water resources used for drinking water production and known for regular algae blooms. Six toxins - microcystins, cylindrospermopsin, anatoxins, nodularin, saxitoxin and BMAA - were targeted. High performance HPLC-MS/MS methods were implemented in parallel with rapid kits and a real-time PCR method was developed to identify specifically the microcystin producing species. Those analytical methods were found in good agreement and very sensitive and selective.
Low levels of eutrophication were obtained during those campaigns leading to limited occurrence of toxins. Results obtained on one site are detailed in this paper.
Finally, recommendations could be drawn to manage the risk related to various emerging algae toxins, based on the use of a phycocyanin probe on-site as early-warning system. When a threshold value is reached, treatment and monitoring strategies are implemented in parallel.
- drinking water
- monitoring freshwater
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